African Americans and Reconstruction: Hope and Struggle provides nearly 1,400 fully searchable printed works essential for understanding the African-American struggle for identity from the end of the Civil War to the beginning of Jim Crow. In the period immediately following the 1865 ratification of the U.S. Constitution’s 13th Amendment—which definitively ended slavery throughout the United States—African Americans, whether once enslaved or always free, faced new challenges as a free people often surrounded by hostile whites.